Maria Wayne Group 3
Essay on the Psychodynamic Perspective
Outline Freud's Psychoanalytic strategy in Mindset.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856. His interest in the down sides of neurosis started if he was working under the specialist Charcot. It was Charcots' teaching of hysteria that Freud became most interested in. Freud came to the fact that the human psyche was made from three psychodynamic structures. They were called the Id, the Ego plus the Superego. The Id was present by birth and consisted of the standard animal predatory instincts. The travel and inspiration of the personality. The Spirit, Freud considered to be developing by birth and operates on the reality theory. The Spirit tries to strike a balance between the irrational demands in the Id plus the constraints from the social universe. The third structure was the Superego. This designed at about six years of age. The Superego works on the values principle and it's demands are unrealistic and absolute excellence. The Superego is also find out as the conscience.
Relating to Freud the Spirit was the vermittler to the Identity and the Superego. The Ego would use defence systems such as shift, projection or repression to balance out virtually any conflicts between your Id as well as the Superego. Freud also researched the area of psychosexual advancement and he believed that everyone had the same phases of creation. Each of these phases had 1 main power known as the sex drive (said by many to imply the sex drive but more likely to in Freud's meaning being 'life force'). The mouth stage was from the age of 0 to approximately two years of age. At this time the sex drive focused on the mouth and the child obtains pleasure from common stimulation. The conflict right here was to get yourself a balanced volume of activation. If this was not achieved the person was fixated at this stage. Samples of fixation inside the oral level are cigarette smoking, constant chewing on pens or pencils, nail gnawing at and over ingesting.
The 2nd stage was your anal level. This stage occurs between the ages of two years and 4 years. Here the libido is focused obtaining pleasure from passing faeces. The are two fixations that can occur at this stage. A person can become either Anal Retentive as the parents used excessive amounts of pressure and punishment. Samples of which are somebody being obsessively clean, miserly and indicate or hoarders. The second fixation which can arise is Anal Expulsive. This being due to parents who've been to lenient and neglect to instil communities rules concerning bowel motion and issue. Examples of this fixation are disorganisation, sloppiness, carelessness and overeagerness.
The Phallic stage happened between the age groups of 3 to six years and was regarded as the most important with the moral development stages. It can be at this stage the libido focuses on the sex organs and fulfillment is attained from masturbation. Freud came up with two various kinds of development at this stage for young boys and girls. Boys designed through the Oedipus Complex (fear of castration) and young ladies through the Electra Complex (penis envy having already been castrated).
The next stage was considered to develop from the age of 6 till puberty. This kind of stage was called the Latency level and here the libido is targeted on other areas of development and sexual wishes are repressed. The sex drive becomes foul.
The final level of Freud's theory was your Genital level. This happened from the associated with 12 to eighteen years. Provided that the child had developed and successfully resolved the Oedipus and Electra stages the would turn into interested in the alternative sex.
Freud researched many other fields which includes that of the unconscious mind. He developed the idea of a 3 layer degree of consciousness. There was clearly the Mindful, the Pre-conscious and the Unconscious. These numbers of consciousness were based on the Identification, Ego and Super-ego. Freud also do a lot of research...
Recommendations: Bowlby, L. (1951) Day care and the Growth of Love. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss (Volume 1) Add-on. London: Hogarth
Eysenck. L, J. (1952) The Effects of Psychotherapy: an evaluation: Record of Asking Psychology, Vol 16, pp. 319-24
Freud. A, (1937) The Ego and the Mechanisms of Protection. London: Hogarth Press
Freud. S, (1896) 'The aetiology of Hysteria ', Journal of Talking to Psychology, Vol 1, pp. 183-219
Klein, M. (1932) The Psychoanalysis of Children. Birmingham: Hogarth Press and The Start of Psychoanalysis
Levinger & Clark (1961) Laboratory Research